Below is a collection of articles written by William V. Padula


Eye Disease, Aging & Human Visual Function

William V. Padula, OD, DPNAP, FAAO, FNORA

Demographic studies consistently show that age is the best predictor of visual impairment and blindness (Hatfield, 1973, NEI 2004). Aging contributes to visual impairment through both normal deterioration of eye tissues and increased incidence of eye pathology. According to the National Eye Institute, statistics from a study by their Eye Disease Prevalence Research Group show age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, cataract, and diabetic retinopathy are the most common eye diseases in Americans age 40 and over. It is estimated that in 2004, AMD with associated vision loss affected 1.8 million, glaucoma 2.2 million, diabetic retinopathy 4.1 million, and cataract 20.5 million. All of these diseases are expected to increase substantially by 2020 as the population ages. At that time it is projected that nearly 3 million persons will have AMD with associated vision loss. (read more)


Post Trauma Vision Syndrome & Visual Midline Shift Syndrome

William V. Padula, Stephanie Argyris

Following a neurological event such as a traumatic brain injury (TBI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), etc. Vision imbalances can occur between the focal and ambient visual process that can affect balance, posture, ambulation, reading, attention, concentration and cognitive function in general. Post Trauma Vision Syndrome (PTVS) and Visual Midline Shift Syndrome (VMSS) can be the cause of these difficulties. This paper discusses the symptoms and characteristics of these syndromes as well as methods of treatment. (read more)


Visual evoked potentials (VEP) evaluating treatment for post-trauma vision syndrome (PTVS) in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI)

W. V. Padula, S. Argyris and J. Ray

Post-trauma vision syndrome (PTVS), which is characterized by binocular function problems, may be caused by dysfunction of the ambient visual process which is part of the sensory-motor feedback loop, rather than by a specific oculomotor disturbance. Clinically, PTVS frequently presents with symptoms of diplopia, blur, seeing movement in the spatial environment, vertigo, and hallucination-like experiences. Visual evoked potentials (P100) were used to evaluate an experimental group (n = 10) of subjects who suffered a traumatic brain injury, and a control group (n = 10). A new treatment using prisms and bi-nasal occluders, which affected amplitude responses of the VEP, was evaluated. The results demonstrate that the amplitude of the VEP is a function of cortical binocular integration, and that this is influenced by dysfunction of the ambient visual process. The results also demonstrate that base-in prism and bi-nasal occluders are an effective means to treat ambient vision disturbances resulting from head trauma induced PTVS. (read more)

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